SPINS stands for "Special Instructions". This page contains standard procedures that are valid when conducting CAS during Master Arms missions unless the organizer or mission commander explicitly states something else. The written mission briefings on the Master Arms event page often refers to the instructions on this page.
- 1 General SPINS Information
- 2 Use of Force
- 3 Risk Estimate Distance
- 4 Collateral Damage Eestimation
- 5 Target Location Error
- 6 Aircraft and Standard Conventional Load
- 7 Helicopter Operations
- 8 UAS Operations
- 9 Airdrop Operations
- 10 Deconfliktion
- 11 Codeword and Authentication
- 12 Communication Plan
- 13 CPs/IPs
- 14 Battlespace Management Definitions
- 15 Notes
General SPINS Information
All personnel conducting or involved with CAS operations with Master Arms are responsible for information in these SPINS and if applicable Weekly/Daily SPINS and Airspace Control Plan.
Use of Force
No ROE shall negate a commander’s right to take all necessary actions for unit and individual self-defense. Self-defense is the use of necessary and proportional force, including deadly force, to defend against an attack or an imminent attack. The following definition apply:
- - “Necessary” means the use of force is indispensable for securing self-defense.
- - “Proportional” means a response commensurate with the perceived level of threat posed.
- - “Imminent” means that the need to defend is manifest, instant and overwhelming.
- - “Attack” is use of force against forces and personnel
Is a likely and identifiable threat recognizable on the basis of both the following conditions:
- - Capability and preparedness of individuals and/or groups of personnel/units which pose a threat to inflict damage
- - Evidence/intelligence which indicates an intention to attack or otherwise inflict damage. These may include maneuvering into weapon launch position and non-tactical events such as indications of mobilization.
Include but are not limited to:
- - Imposing restrictions upon the movements of forces through mine laying operations.
- - Military aircraft penetrating restricted airspace refusing to comply to interception instructions.
- - Breaching/attempting to breach restricted area.
Show of Presence
SoP is a mission flown to reassure friendly forces and civilians, achieved through visible and audible presence at altitude above 5000 ft AGL.
Show of Force
SoF require supported ground commander authorization. The profile flown will normally be requested and controlled by a JTAC/FAC(A) and treated as a CAS mission (CAS-brief) limited to three subsonic aircraft passes. Use of flares is permitted during SoF for self-protection.
Risk Estimate Distance
|Mk-82 Contact||500lb Bomb||300m / 984ft||250m / 820ft||200m / 656ft|
|Mk-82 Airburst||500lb Bomb||400m / 1312ft||350m / 1148ft||300m / 984ft|
|GBU-12||500lb LGB||250m / 820ft||200m / 656ft||150m / 492ft|
|GBU-38||500lb JDAM||275m / 902ft||225m / 738ft||175m / 574ft|
|GBU-54||500lb LJDAM||275m / 902ft||225m / 738ft||175m / 574ft|
|Mk-84 Contact||2000lb Bomb||350m / 1148ft||300m / 984ft||250m / 820ft|
|Mk-84 Airburst||2000lb Bomb||450m / 1476ft||400m / 1312ft||350m / 1148ft|
|GBU-10/24||2000lb LGB||300m / 984ft||250m / 820ft||200m / 656ft|
|CBU-87||CEM||300m / 984ft||250m / 820ft||200m / 656ft|
|CBU-103||CEM||275m / 902ft||225m / 738ft||175m / 574ft|
|AGM-65||AGM||150m / 492ft||100m /328ft||50m / 164ft|
|AGM-114||AGM||100m / 328ft||50m / 164ft||5m / 16ft|
|Gun||20-30mm||100m / 328ft||50m / 164ft||5m / 16ft|
Collateral Damage Eestimation
Target Engagement Authority
When troops are in contact with a hostile force of acting in self-defence, the on scene ground commander is the strike approval authority.
Deliberate and Dynamic Targets
- - Mission Commander approves strikes with a CDE of 3 or higher
- - Ground Forces Commander approves a strike with CDE 2.
- - A qualified JTAC approves a strike with CDE 1.
|Level 1||Weapon Effect Radius max 200m?
400m radius of the aim point is clear of CDE risk objects, civilian or civilian buildings?
|Level 2||Weapon Effect Radius max 250m?
300m radius of the aim point is clear of CDE risk objects, civilian or civilian buildings?
|Level 3||Weapon Effect Radius is clear of CDE risk objects?||YES||MC|
|Level 4||Weapon Effect Radius is clear of civilians?||YES||MC|
|Target is not authorised for engagement|
Target Location Error
TLE is defined as the difference between a set of target coordinates generated and the actual location of the target. In order to facilitate the communication of targeting accuracy, TLE is characterized in six categories. The first row represents the categories of TLE which range from best (CAT 1) to worst (CAT 6) and are used to classify the accuracy of any coordinate generating system.
|CAT 1||CAT 2||CAT 3||CAT 4||CAT 5||CAT 6|
Aircraft and Standard Conventional Load
Standard Conventional Loads
MA has a large number of operational platforms with different capabilities and limitations. The SCL or othe rloadout will be shown in the misison brief or given by the aircrew on check-in.
Table of MA SCLs
|Aircraft||Nav. cap.||Standard Conventional Loadouts|
|A-10C II||MGRS, Lat/Long Dec.
|W1: 4xAGM-65D, 4xGBU-54B, 7x, 1000 Rds/30mm, LITENING|
|W2: 2xAGM-65E, 4xGBU-54B, 7xAPKWS, 1000 Rds/30mm, LITENING|
|W3: 6xGBU-12,4xGBU-54B, 7xAPKWS, 1000 Rds/30mm, LITENING|
|F-15E||MGRS, Lat/Long Dec.
|S1: 8xGBU-12, 1xGBU-24, 500 Rds/20mm, LANTIRN|
|S2: 12xMk-82 AIR, 1xMk-84 AIR, 500 Rds/20mm, LANTIRN|
|AH-64D||MGRS, Lat/Long Dec.
|A1: 8xAGM-114K, 38xHydra-70 M151/229, 300 Rds/30mm, M-TADS|
|A2: 16xAGM-114K, 300 Rds/30mm, M-TADS|
|A3: 76xHydra-70 M151/229, 300 Rds/30mm, M-TADS|
|AV-8B||MGRS, Lat/Long Dec.
|H1: 4xGBU-54B, 300Rds/20mm, LITENING|
|H2: 2xGBU-12, 2xAGM65E, 300Rds/20mm, LITENING|
|F-16C||Lat/Long Dec. (MGRS)
|V1: 4xGBU-12, 300Rds/20mm, LITENING|
|V2: 4xAGM-65D, 300Rds/20mm, LITENING|
|V3: 4xGBU-38, 300Rds/20mm, LITENING|
|F/A-18C||MGRS, Lat/Long Dec.
|G1: 2xGBU-12, 1xGBU-32, 1xAGM-65E, 500Rds/20mm, ATFLIR|
|G2: 2xGBU-12, 2xGBU-38, 500Rds/20mm, ATFLIR|
|G3: 4xGBU-12, 500Rds/20mm, ATFLIR|
|T1: 14xMk-82 AIR, 600Rds/20mm, LANTIRN|
|T2: 4x GBU-12, 600Rds/20mm, LANTIRN|
The primary attack brief for RW CAS is 9-line, In certain situations RW may have higher SA due to lower operating altitude. In these instances, the 5-line RW CAS brief is available. The 5-line is an observer-centric CAS brief typically used for BOT attacks.
Battlefield Air Space Management
Battlefield Air Space Management
When separated in height, aircraft may cross GTL. Separation must be at least 1000ft above maximum height AMSL of the fires ordnance (Max Ord).
E.g. Max Ord=6200fr AMSL, aircraft are not permitted below 7200.
Time-check between all units involved must be carried out before using time separation. GPS time must be used for TOT.
separation between firs ordnance and aircraft TOT should be at least 30sec. (Check-fire for the battery must be given 30sec+TOF)
The separation measure may be described by grid line, lat/long reference or terrain features.
E.g. “Stay east of grid line 45”or “Stay west of river”
Codeword and Authentication
The following codewords are to be used for MA training when simulating non-secure comms.
|OFF STN AAR||STATOIL|
For Lat/Long, pass NORTH/SOUTH first, then EAST/WEST in degrees, minutes and tenths of minutes. Do not say “North” or “East”. Preface all encoded information with “RAMROD”.
For MGRS, GZD and 100000m identifier are read as per routine, then 6-10 digits are encoded with RAMROD.
In time-critical situation, target coordinates may be passed in the clear.
RAMROD to be used for MA training is:
Initial contact will be with ALO if able otherwise AWACS “Stingray” who will push aircraft to controlling JTAC on assigned net.
Air-to-Ground TAD Distribution
|ALO||GHOST10||ORANGE 513||BLUE 513|
|JTAC||STALKER1||ORANGE 514||BLUE 514|
|JTAC||STALKER2||ORANGE 515||BLUE 515|
|JTAC||STALKER3||ORANGE 516||BLUE 516|
Air-to-Ground TAD Frequencies
|513||42.000 MHz FM||342.000 MHz AM|
|514||44.000 MHz FM||344.000 MHz AM|
|515||46.000 MHz FM||346.000 MHz AM|
|516||48.000 MHz FM||348.000 MHz AM|
|CAUCASUS 1||CASPER||N 42° 35.000' E 042° 35.000'||38T LN 020 170||Mountain Ridge|
|SYRIA 1||CASPER||N 33° 06.500' E 035° 07.500'||36S XB 985 650||Naqoura Airfield|
|CAUCASUS 1||IP NORTH||-||-||-|
|CAUCASUS 2||IP EAST||-||-||-|
|CAUCASUS 3||IP SOUTH||-||-||-|
|CAUCASUS 4||IP WEST||-||-||-|
|SYRIA 1||IP NORTH||-||-||-|
|SYRIA 2||IP EAST||-||-||-|
|SYRIA 3||IP SOUTH||-||-||-|
|SYRIA 4||IP WEST||-||-||-|
Battlespace Management Definitions